The Life Expectancy Gap

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Wealthier Americans are gaining in life expectancy whereas this figure is decreasing for poor Americans.

Some articles and media have reported that this gap is narrowing…. (One article below describes a widening gap).

But I trust my uncle more. We had a kitchen-table conversation about it here in Maryland. He cannot seem to retire as an economist, and he just wrote an empirical paper about this topic. (He had been a Senior Fellow at Brookings Institute for 40 years, but he still rides the subway into DC three times a week (not paid, just for fun). Who goes to work for fun? After formally retiring? He does.

There has always existed a gap, but this gap is now widening – and it is about to widen dramatically. High-tech life extension measures will be available for those who can afford them.

In contrast, poor Americans are dying earlier and earlier. The principle causes seem to be 1) drug overdoses, principally meth and heroin; 2) a junk-food diet that is even worse than the previous generation, and a lower inclination to exercise thanks to the smart phone; and 3) stress and economic marginalization.

Of these factors, drugs seems to be the one accounting for the recent spike in youth mortality. And the studies predicting a narrowing of the disparity were probably based on 10-year old data…

Again, we are witnessing a growing divergence between the elite and the commoner – a neo-feudal configuration that, this time around, will have physical and biological repercussions.

Interestingly, among poorer Americans even average height is dropping. The average height for men in the US fell below the European average height just a few short (no pun intended) years ago. Mostly because our diet is shit.

Did not Brave New World predict all this? A caste system in full.

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/13/health/disparity-in-life-spans-of-the-rich-and-the-poor-is-growing.html

The C3PO Factor

Here is a 2 minute video.

C3PO originally did not have a silver leg (in the old timeline). While I’m not a Star Wars expert, I do not know about this than most people. I was one of the first few thousand people to ever see this movie – at  the first showing on opening day at the Uptown Theater in DC, when it only opened in one other theater in New York. It did not take off until weeks later.

I think C3PO always had only gold legs. But now I’m living in a new timeline.

This is one case of the Mandela effect with some residue left over.

My latest take on the Mandela effect, which I will elaborate some other time, is that it is a nudge-nudge, wink-wink reminder that this reality is negotiable.

High Blood Pressure

Here is a 4 minute vid

Jerusalem: Trumpocalypse

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Trump aims to relocate the US Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Before I explain why this is fake, and just for show (partly), a few preliminaries.

The UN has always been crystal clear regarding that city’s status. International law does not recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.

According to Wikipedia:

“In November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine (Resolution 181), which called for the partition of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem being established as a corpus separatum, or a “separated body” with a special legal and political status.”

A few countries recognize “West Jerusalem” as the capital of Israel only in the context of “East Jerusalem” being the capital of a future Palestinian state.

At present, the US has its Embassy in Tel Aviv and a Consulate in Jerusalem, as do other countries. Many of their functions overlap regarding services to citizens. But the Embassy is more important because it has the political people, with the offices of the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Missions, etcetera. Embassies also have the economic people.

So why is the move for symbolic reasons only?

Because US diplomats would be marooned in Jerusalem, that’s why. Most diplomatic work, after all, involves other diplomats (who are in Tel Aviv, up to two hours away). Also, many NGOs are in Tel Aviv, which is by far Israel’s largest city.

Diplomatic life involves non-stop socializing, cocktail parties, nightlife, and being seen at all the new trendy restaurants. This is Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv is modern, cosmopolitan, vibrant and increasingly multi-ethnic. It’s very secular. It’s compatible with diplomacy.

By contrast, Jerusalem only attracts psychotic pilgrims from the world over. It’s just another backwater with no water.

My guess is that the US will now have an “official” Embassy in Jerusalem with a sign outside, but that the political and economic people will remain based in Tel Aviv. They pretty much have to be, unless they prefer to remain isolated, remote, and surrounded by fanatics.

So why did Trump move the Embassy. Three reasons.

First, those controllers pushing the “conflict model” in the Middle East are hoping to generate some heat, push forward the agenda in a dialectical way. It’s been too quiet over there!

Second, Trump wants to throw some read meat to the Christian evangelicals. Almost all Christians are hard-core zionists. The hope that this Jerusalem move brings the world closer to an apocalyptic climax. These are the same people who believe in a predetermined destiny AND free will.

Are you Rapture Ready?

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It’s a barn burner! Bible-thumping, snake handling, speaking in tongues.

And Jesus, well, he was a Republican.

Third, Trump has been bought and paid for by one man: Sheldon Adelson, who is – appropriately – a casino tycoon and an arch zionist. In terms of campaign donations, Adelson ranks #1.

In this line of thinking, US aid to Israel (astronomical amounts) changes from a secular to a religious act. It becomes an offering at the altar, a humiliation ritual, a sacrifice, thus circling back to one of the original reasons Judaism was concocted in the first place: to steal people’s shit (and turn that into a ritual).

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So those are the reasons: 1) to piss off the locals and get some drama going; 2) to appease the Christian wackos; and 3) honor the campaign promise to its principal funder.

Recurring Meme

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As I watched season 7 of Game of Thrones on the plane, I was struck by how often I’ve seen the giant library in movies – libraries large enough, or old enough, to contain a compendium of all human experience.

The Library of Alexandria and the Vatican Library also feature in movies. Below is “Angels and Demons.”

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Below, the Department of Records in the movie Brazil.

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I won’t produce an exhaustive list here, but it is a rather long list. I think these movies are reproducing something. There may be an original archetype, a storehouse of all that can be known of this world – and of the previous four worlds.

The somewhat Biblical expression that something “is written” may be literally true.

Somewhere beyond “the wall” there is a labyrinth of this information – names, dates, titles, contracts, and deeds. Such written sources bind the interior and exterior, attaching identities and souls to this world.

These libraries formalize existence.

Then again, perhaps I’m suffering from a severe case of jet lag

Ups and Downs and Ups

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Longer posting today…

Today is, was, my last full day living in Chengdu, China. I head to the airport in 9 hours so will not post for 48 hours, most likely.

My time here was 95% positive. The work was rewarding (usually). I had fun learning how to play rugby. I got my health back. I got my mojo back. China was very good to me.

From a more macro perspective, I think China – considering the context and framework of history, and considering its population size – is doing very well and on the right track, despite a few of my comments below.

Let’s rewind to the Civil War and WWII. There were only two options in China: the Nationalists and the Communists. That was it. No other scenarios in this timeline.

The Nationalists sought to modernize while preserving the class and economic structure of Old China. Nationalists sought to protect the power of the traditional elites, including the landlord class, and remain quite friendly with foreign capital. Its the kind of class alliance that, according to Barrington Moore, often leads to fascism.

Fortunately, the Nationalists lost. People forget (especially in the West) that Old China was brutal. I came across historical records (while editing a paper) about a young Chinese woman sold as a slave three times in the early 20th century. Tibet, too, had a lot of slavery until its emancipation in 1959. Americans who sympathize with Tibet can be compared to Southerners and their “war of norther aggression.” (Not that slavery was the only issue of the war).

The Communist revolution, while not ideal or utopian, eradicated this old order. Fortunately. Yes, some people were put up against the wall and shot. Many deserved it, as they were seeking to preserve their status as social and economic leeches.

Routinely, I hear American writers and commentators blame Mao for “tens of millions of deaths” which is absurd. Yes, millions starved, and the population fell, but the Great Leap Forward was intended to produce economic growth. During the American Great Depression, millions died early deaths from malnutrition. It’s a bit like pinning this on Franklin Delano Roosevelt. It’s absurd.

The most absurd aspect of criticism of China – coming from Americans in particular – is that their critique rests on a mythical standpoint: a Jeffersonian democracy of some kind – as if the Bill of Rights means anything anymore. If the New World Order had a spear tip, it’d be the United States, with its non-stop coup plotting, foreign interventions, and Fortune 500 wars. The US is basically run by a motley crew of blue-blooded aristocrats, the corporate neuveau riche, usurious Jewish bankers, and an Alphabet Soup of 1984-style intelligence services – all validated by backwoods evangelical Christians and a reality-TV president whose policies are reduced to tweets.

If Thomas Jefferson were alive today, he would pen a eulogy for the country and then stab himself in the neck with his own fountain pen. Death in Monticello.

Once the land of John F. Kennedy, the US is becoming a poor excuse for a country – and yet some of its citizens think that they have a standpoint for criticizing China.

I don’t complain about China in the main, or overall, although after living here for years, I can certainly quibble about this or that. I’ve at least earned that right; I had skin in the game. The banking system is overly bureaucratic, for example.

The workplace culture is often overly authoritarian. Supervisors are conferred a degree of papal infallibility. Strangely, it is acceptable to pay people late and remain very unclear (until the last minute of course) regarding vacation times, etc…

Even more strangely, Chinese people think that it is unseemly, or unacceptable, to lose one’s temper in the face of this. There is a time and a place for losing one’s temper. Not being paid properly is one of those times. In my view, losing one’s temper pales in comparison to the greater offense of late pay.

I advise young foreigners in China to be flexible, accommodating, diplomatic and to bend over backwards to do people favors at work. But when it comes to core issues of pay and time off, there should be no negotiation, and no consideration of other people’s “feelings.”

The Internet is controlled, but that is the sovereign right of China. It is also controlled in the US, where censorship is outsourced. Youtube routinely removes sites, de-monetizes videos, and lowers subscribers. Also, the money earned from youtube is not a function of any algorithm. The agent(s) in charge of that site simply decide to put certain youtubers on a stipend, and then raise or lower it as incentive to produce more or less. With Pavlovian precision.

Finally, I do agree with China’s One Belt and One Road plan because this version of globalization is not political or military. I finally discovered something after years here. China is not overly Machiavellian in its foreign policy because China is the world. What happens on the barbarian periphery is of secondary importance. Makes sense. This is the Middle Kingdom.

Regarding Hong Kong, I think it is inconceivable that Hong Kong would ever elect people who were anti-China. Hong Kongers know who butters their bread. So why the move for more control over Hong Kong? It becomes control for the sake of control, and this is not good public relations. One attracts more bees with honey than with vinegar…

This policy seems unnecessary and alienates the majority of people in Taiwan who are probably neutral or wavering regarding their return, and restoration, as a natural part of China (Formosa).

This website advocates complexity, and a complex configuration of political systems is still compatible with Chinese civilization and a very wide-spectrum of one-party rule. Actually I think such an approach would secure China’s status as a global leader. But it’s not my call of course. Just saying.

If anyone out there gets a chance to live and work in China, take it. Genuine people. Fascinating place. Each day is different.

Yeah, I left a piece of my heart here, besides.

Business of Education

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Darren (facing the camera) has been in the educational agency business for a long time. Basically, this involves gathering up high school students who seek to study overseas:

Selecting schools (all about the rankings). Filling out their applications. Providing tutoring for the IELTS or TOEFL English proficiency exams. Editing the personal statements. Preparing the bank statements and readying everything for the visa. It’s a full-service operation, and there are helicopter parents to please as well.

Darren is seeing an uptick in students applying to the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, and a leveling off of the students applying to schools in the United States, in a relative sense. The UK is definitely gaining momentum on the US. The main reasons include that the US is no longer as attractive as it once was.

First, the tuition rates in the US are far higher than anywhere else. Exorbitant. Second, there is the perception, partly based on reality, that the Trump administration – and Trump’s America – is simply less welcoming to foreigners and that the visa situation is unpredictable. Third, even though the UK and Europe have seen its share of violent incidents (real/partly real/false), the US seems to have more violence on college campuses (real/partly real/false). Combined, those are powerful reasons.

To be sure, the surge in the size of China’s middle means that the raw, actual numbers of Chinese students in the US will continue to increase – but it will not increase relative to the numbers in the UK, Australia and NZ. Actually, many UK Master’s programs are now having to close their applications earlier, with earlier deadlines, because of the avalanche of applications from China.

 

Honduran Hellhole

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The photo of me on the right and Indy on the left, prepping to enter Honduras from El Salvador.

He had the red Honda Africa Twin, mine was the Kawasaki KLR 650.

Long time readers will remember this photo. Indy is the ex-IDF veteran (of two Intifadas) who left Israel (fled/abandoned) when Orthodox settlers threw stones at him and his men for defending their village on a Saturday. His epiphany was simple: they were all fucking crazy (as they are) and he wanted out.

In El Salvador the authorities were making a nominal attempt to be on the right side of the law. They sometimes warned us about certain zones. In Honduras, the authorities are criminals.

The Honduran military police had set up very, very frequent roadblocks as extortion points. Get fined for not wearing a fluorescent vest (unsafe) or fined for wearing one (imitating authorities). Some just straight up asked us how much money we had, demanding some to pass. Others collected all our personal and motorcycle paperwork, inventing bogus reasons why our papers were not in order. Another eyed my watch, suggesting I gift it to him. I hid it for the next roadblock.

The roads were the worst in Central America. More pothole than road.

So it’s no surprise that in the recent election, when the center-left candidate started winning the government stopped the count. When the count restarted, the fascist was back on track. Classic. Same thing happened in Manila in 1985.

But the Philippines is a slice of paradise compared to Honduras. Honduras is a shit hole. It’s no surprise to me that Honduras is having this problem.

I’m not sure why the US repeatedly backs the fascist parties… Of course the Trump administration is quite silent on the matter. It reserves its criticism for Venezuela.

Interestingly, Nicaragua – which we also crossed – was safe, with good roads. The authorities were cordial. No gangs. They have a center-left government that drifted to the center. It’s a reasonable system.

I vowed never to return to Honduras and I hope never to see this stain on the hemisphere again.

I’m half expecting the recent and latest crisis to worsen. A part of me hopes it does. Death to the Honduran military police. Maybe something can emerge from the ashes.

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Fascinating 12 min vid

Lots of historical footage in here.

21st Century Slavery

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After years of intense criticism of the International Criminal Court, for its neo-colonial bias towards potato-sacking Africans, the Court’s puppet masters found a pretty face from Africa, this female Uncle Tom, Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda, to oversee the Court’s current prosecution of 42 defendants.

How many of these defendants are currently African? 42!!! 42!!! Don’t believe me? Their photos are below.

Consider this, regarding the International Criminal Court:

Three of the five members of the UN Security Council (US, Russia, and China) do not recognize the authority of the ICC. (But the US  is a lead cheerleader for potato-sacking people and taking them to the ICC).

Did Russian generals violate international law in Chechnya? We will never know. Are the architects of the 2003 Iraq invasion accountable for more than a million deaths? Having launched the war on lies? Of course they are not.

The ICC was not associated with the original United Nations. The ICC was spawned in 2002 and put in The Hague to glean some of the legitimacy of the UN’s World Court. To be down the street, so to speak, from the real court.

The recent appeal of a past case (in which the convicted man drank poison in court, leftover from an old case of a Yugoslav) reveals the absurdity of this Kangaroo system: The appeal was heard in the very same court issuing the original verdict.

In other words, this court is completely unaccountable, breaking precedent with the history of jurisprudence in the West. (The US Supreme Court is actually accountable to laws and the Constitution, and to the amendment process, forcing changes of rulings).

The ICC is judge, jury, prosecutor, and the court of appeal!

The ICC claims that it needs to exist because judicial systems in many of these countries are not well developed. Of course, those systems will actually never develop if justice is outsourced.

In reality, the ICC is a goon squad for the World Bank, the IMF, and private banking cartels based in London and New York. To be placed on the ICC shit list usually means that one has flirted with independent currencies.

Some (not all) of the people below seem guilty of heinous crimes. But it may be wiser to be patient, and await the delivery of justice in national court systems.

Some of these guys will be held accountable – in this world or the next – as will the backers of the grotesque ICC and the architects of western neo-con wars.

Meantime, the ICC is a neo-colonial institution with a twisted, Alice-in-Wonderland legal system. This court needs to be criticized at every turn.

42 Defendants
Abu Garda, Bahar Idriss
Chairman and General Coordinator of Military Operations of the United Resistance Front at time of summons. Summons to appear: 7 May 2009 – Unsealed on 17 May 2009

Charges: three war crimes allegedly committed during an attack carried out on 29 September 2007 in Darfur, Sudan. Charges not confirmed.

Abu Minyar Gaddafi, Muammar Mohammed
Commander of the Armed Forces of Libya and holding the title of Leader of the Revolution, and as such, acting as the Libyan Head of State, at time of the warrant. Case terminated on 22 November 2011, following his death. Arrest warrant: 27 June 2011

Charges: two counts of crimes against humanity allegedly committed in 2011 in Libya. Case also involved charges against Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi and Abdullah Al-Senussi. Case against Mr Al-Senussi declared inadmissible on 11 October 2013. Case against Muammar Gaddafi terminated on 22 November 2011.

Al Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmad
President of the Republic of Sudan since 16 October 1993 at time of warrants. Arrest warrants: 4 March 2009 and 12 July 2010

Charges: five counts of crimes against humanity: murder, extermination, forcible transfer, torture, and rape; two counts of war crimes: intentionally directing attacks against a civilian population as such or against individual civilians not taking part in hostilities, and pillaging; three counts of genocide: by killing, by causing serious bodily or mental harm, and by deliberately inflicting on each target group conditions of life calculated to bring about the group’s physical destruction, allegedly committed at least between 2003 and 2008 in Darfur, Sudan

Al Faqi Al Mahdi, Ahmad
Alleged member of Ansar Eddine, a movement associated with Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, head of the “Hisbah” until September 2012, and associated with the work of the Islamic Court of Timbuktu. Arrest warrant: 28 September 2015

Charges: Found guilty as a co-perpetrator of the war crime consisting in intentionally directing attacks against religious and historic buildings in Timbuktu, Mali, in June and July 2012. Sentenced to nine years’ imprisonment, the time spent by the suspect in detention being deducted from the sentence.
Al-Senussi, Abdullah
Colonel in the Libyan Armed Forces and head of the Military Intelligence, at time of arrest warrant. Arrest warrant: 27 June 2011

Charges: two counts of crimes against humanity allegedly committed in 2011 in Libya. Case against Al-Senussi declared inadmissible before the ICC on 11 October 2013 due to national proceedings in Libya regarding the same crimes. Case also involved charges against Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi and Muammar Gaddafi in warrant issued on 27 June 2011. Case against Muammar Gaddafi was terminated on 22 November 2011, following his passing.

Al-Werfalli, Mahmoud Mustafa Busayf
Nationality: Libyan Date of birth: 1978 Function: Commander in the Al-Saiqa Brigade

Charges: Mr Al-Werfalli is alleged to have directly committed and to have ordered the commission of murder as a war crime in the context of seven incidents, involving 33 persons, which took place from on or before 3 June 2016 until on or about 17 July 2017 in Benghazi or surrounding areas, in Libya.
Ali, Mohamed Hussein
Chief Executive of the Postal Corporation of Kenya (and Commissioner of the Kenya Police during the post-election violence), at time of summons. Summons to appear: 8 March 2011

Charges: five crimes against humanity allegedly committed during the 2007-2008 post-election violence in Kenya. On 23 January 2012, the Judges declined to confirm the charges. Case also involved charges against Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta and Francis Kirimi Muthaura. Charges against Mr Muthaura were withdrawn on 11 March 2013. Proceedings against Mr Kenyatta were terminated on 13 March 2015.

Ali Abd-Al-Rahman, Ali Muhammad (“Ali Kushayb”)
Alleged leader of the Militia/Janjaweed, at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 27 April 2007

Charges: 22 counts of crimes against humanity: murder, deportation or forcible transfer of population, imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law, torture, persecution, and inhumane acts of inflicting serious bodily injury and suffering; and 28 counts of war crimes: violence to life and person, outrage upon personal dignity in particular humiliating and degrading treatment, intentionally directing an attack against a civilian population, pillaging, rape, and destroying or seizing the property, allegedly committed at least between 2003 and 2004 in Darfur, Sudan

Arido, Narcisse

National of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arrest warrant: 20 November 2013 – unsealed on 28 November 2013

Charges: Found guilty of various offences against the administration of justice related to the false testimonies of defence witnesses in the Bemba case. Case also involved charges against Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Aimé Kilolo Musamba, Jean-Jacques Mangenda Kabongo, and Fidèle Babala Wandu.

Babala Wandu, Fidèle

National of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Member of Parliament in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arrest warrant: 20 November 2013, unsealed on 28 November 2013

Charges: Found guilty of various offences against the administration of justice related to false testimonies in the Bemba case. Case also involved charges against Messrs Bemba Gombo, Kilolo Musamba, Mangenda Kabongo, and Arido.

 

Banda Abakaer Nourain, Abdallah
Commander-in-Chief of Justice and Equality Mouvement Collective-Leadership at time of warrant. Summons to appear: Issued under seal on 27 August 2009 | Unsealed on 15 June 2010. Arrest warrant: 11 September 2014

Charges: three war crimes: violence to life, whether committed or attempted, intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles involved in a peacekeeping mission, and pillaging, allegedly committed during an attack carried out on 29 September 2007 in Darfur, Sudan. Case also involved Saleh Mohammed Jerbo Jamus but proceedings against him were terminated on 4 October 2013 following his passing.

Barasa, Walter Osapiri

National of Kenya. Arrest warrant: 2 August 2013 – Unsealed on 2 October 2013

Charges: three counts of offences against the administration of justice consisting in corruptly influencing or attempting to corruptly influence three ICC witnesses regarding cases from the situation in Kenya

Bemba Gombo, Jean-Pierre

President and Commander-in-chief of the Mouvement de libération du Congo, at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 20 November 2013, unsealed on 28 November 2013

Charges: Offences against the administration of justice, including corruptly influencing witnesses in the Bemba case. Case also involved charges against Aimé Kilolo Musamba, Jean-Jacques Mangenda Kabongo, Fidèle Babala Wandu, and Narcisse Arido.

Bett, Philip Kipkoech

Also known as “Kipseng’erya”, residing in KenyaArrest warrant: 10 March 2015 – unsealed on 10 September 2015

Charges: offences against the administration of justice consisting in corruptly influencing witnesses regarding cases from the situation in Kenya. Case also involves charges against Paul Gicheru.

Blé Goudé, Charles

Ivorian national. Arrest warrant: 21 December 2011

Charges: four counts of crimes against humanity: murder, rape and other forms of sexual violence, persecution, and other inhuman acts, allegedly committed during the 2010-2011 post-election violence in Côte d’Ivoire. The Blé Goudé and Gbagbo cases were joined on 11 March 2015.

Gaddafi, Saif Al-Islam
Honorary chairman of the Gaddafi International Charity and Development Foundation and acting as the Libyan de facto Prime Minister, at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 27 June 2011

Charges: two counts of crimes against humanity: murder and persecution, allegedly committed in 2011 in Libya. Case also involved charges Muammar Gaddafi and Abdullah Al-Senussi in warrant issued on 27 June 2011. Case against Abdullah Al-Senussi was declared inadmissible on 11 October 2013. Case against Muammar Gaddafi was terminated on 22 November 2011, following his death.

Gbagbo, Simone

Ivorian national. Arrest warrant: 29 February 2012 – Unsealed on 22 November 2012

Charges: four counts of crimes against humanity: murder, rape and other sexual violence, persecution and other inhuman acts, allegedly committed during the 2010-2011 post-election violence in Côte d’Ivoire

Gbagbo, Laurent

Ivorian national and former President of Côte d’Ivoire, at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 23 November 2011

Charges: four counts of crimes against humanity: murder, rape, other inhumane acts or – in the alternative – attempted murder, and persecution, allegedly committed during the 2010-2011 post-election violence in Côte d’Ivoire. The Blé Goudé and Gbagbo cases were joined on 11 March 2015.

Gicheru, Paul

Lawyer based in Kenya. Arrest warrant: 10 March 2015 – unsealed on 10 September 2015

Charges: offences against the administration of justice consisting in corruptly influencing witnesses regarding cases from the situation in Kenya. Case also involves charges against Philip Kipkoech Bett.

 

Harun, Ahmad Muhammad (“Ahmad Harun”)
Minister of State for the Interior of the Government of Sudan, at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 27 April 2007

Charges: 20 counts of crimes against humanity: murder, persecution, forcible transfer of population, rape, inhumane acts, imprisonment or severe deprivation of, and torture; and 22 counts of war crimes: murder, attacks against the civilian population, destruction of property, rape, pillaging, and outrage upon personal dignity, allegedly committed at least between 2003 and 2004 in Darfur, Sudan. Case also involves charges against Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman (“Ali Kushayb”).

Hussein, Abdel Raheem Muhammad
Minister of National Defence (former Minister of the Interior and former Sudanese President’s Special Representative in Darfur), at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 1 March 2012

Charges: 7 counts of crimes against humanity: persecution, murder, forcible transfer, rape, inhumane acts, imprisonment or severe deprivation of liberty, and torture; and 6 counts of war crimes: murder, attacks against a civilian population, destruction of property, rape, pillaging, and outrage upon personal dignity, allegedly committed at least between 2003 and 2004 in Darfur, Sudan

Katanga, Germain
Alleged commander of the Force de résistance patriotique en Ituri (FRPI) at time of arrest warrant. Arrest warrant: 2 July 2007 – Unsealed on 15 October 2007

Charges: Found guilty, as an accessory, of one count of crime against humanity: murder; and four counts of war crimes: murder, attacking a civilian population, destruction of property and pillaging, committed on 24 February 2003 during the attack on the village of Bogoro, in the Ituri district of the DRC. Case also involved charges against Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui but the 2 cases were severed on 21 November 2012. Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui was acquitted on 18 December 2012.

Kenyatta, Uhuru Muigai
Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, at time of summons. Summons to appear: 8 March 2011

Charges: five counts of crimes against humanity allegedly committed during the 2007-2008 post-election violence in Kenya. Prosecutor withdrew charges. Case also involved charges against Francis Kirimi Muthaura and Mohammed Hussein Ali. Judges declined to confirm charges against Mohammed Hussein Ali on 23 January 2012

Khaled, Al-Tuhamy Mohamed
Libyan national, born in 1942 in the Janzour area of Libya, west of Tripoli. Alleged former Lieutenant General of the Libyan army and former head of the Libyan Internal Security Agency (ISA).

Charges: 4 crimes against humanity: imprisonment, torture, persecution, and other inhumane acts allegedly committed in Libya from 15 February 2011 until 24 August 2011; and 3 war crimes: torture, cruel treatment and outrages upon personal dignity allegedly committed in Libya from at least early March 2011 to 24 August 2011.

Kilolo Musamba, Aimé

National of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; former Defense Counsel for Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo. Arrest warrant: 20 November 2013 – unsealed on 28 November 2013

Charges: Found guilty of various offences against the administration of justice related to the false testimonies of defence witnesses in the Bemba case. Charged together with Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Jean-Jacques Mangenda Kabongo, Fidèle Babala Wandu and Narcisse Arido.

Kony, Joseph
Alleged Commander-in-Chief of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 8 July 2005

Charges: 12 counts of crimes against humanity: murder, enslavement, sexual enslavement, rape, inhumane acts of inflicting serious bodily injury and suffering; and 21 counts of war crimes: murder, cruel treatment of civilians, intentionally directing an attack against a civilian population, pillaging, inducing rape, and forced enlistment of children, allegedly committed after 1 July 2002 in northern Uganda. Case also involves Vincent Otti. While case originally involved Raska Lukwiya and Okot Odhiambo, proceedings against them were terminated due to their passing.

Kosgey, Henry Kiprono
Kenyan Minister of Industrialization, MP for Tinderet Constituency, ODM Chairman (and during the post-election violence, MP for Tinderet), at time of summons. Summons to appear: 8 March 2011

Charges: four crimes against humanity allegedly committed during the 2007-2008 post-election violence in Kenya. On 23 January 2012, the Judges declined to confirm the charges against Mr Kosgey. His case also involved William Samoei Ruto and Joshua Arap Sang. The Ruto and Sang case was terminated on 5 April 2016.

Lubanga Dylio, Thomas
Former President of the Union des Patriotes Congolais/Forces Patriotiques pour la Libération du Congo (UPC/FPLC). Arrest warrant: 10 February 2006 – Unsealed on 17 March 2006

Charges: Found guilty, on 14 March 2012, of the war crimes of enlisting and conscripting children under the age of 15 years and using them to participate actively in hostilities

Lukwiya, Raska
Deputy Army Commander of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 8 July 2005

Charges: one crime against humanity and three war crimes allegedly committed after 1 July 2002 in northern Uganda. Case against him terminated on 11 July 2007, following his passing. Case also involved Joseph Kony, Vincent Otti and Okot Odhiambo. Proceedings against Okot Odhiambo were also terminated due to his passing.

 

Mangenda Kabongo, Jean-Jacques

National of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; a former Defence team member of Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo. Arrest warrant: 20 November 2013 – Unsealed on 28 November 2013

Charges: Found guilty of various offences against the administration of justice related to the false testimonies of defence witnesses in the Bemba case. Charged together with Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Aimé Kilolo Musamba, Fidèle Babala Wandu and Narcisse Arido.

Mbarushimana, Callixte
Alleged Executive Secretary of the Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Rwanda – Forces Combattantes Abacunguzi (FDLR-FCA, FDLR), at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 25 September 2010 – Unsealed on 11 October 2010

Charges: five counts of crimes against humanity and eight counts of war crimes allegedly committed in 2009 in the Kivus, the DRC. Charges not confirmed.

Mohammed Jerbo Jamus, Saleh
Sudanese Liberation Army-Unity’s Chief of Staff (and later integrated into the Justice and Equality Movement), at time of summons. Summons to appear: 27 August 2009 – Unsealed on 15 June 2010

Charges: three war crimes allegedly committed during an attack carried out on 29 September 2007 in Darfur, Sudan. Proceedings terminated by Trial Chamber IV on 4 October 2013 after receiving evidence pointing towards his death. Case also involved charges against Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain.

Mudacumura, Sylvestre
Alleged Supreme Commander of the Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Rwanda, at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 27 August 2009 – Unsealed on 15 June 2010

Charges: nine counts of war crimes: attacking civilians, murder, mutilation, cruel treatment, rape, torture, destruction of property, pillaging and outrages against personal dignity, allegedly committed between 2009 and 2010, in the context of the conflict in the Kivus, in the DRC

Muthaura, Francis Kirimi
Head of the Public Service and Secretary to the Cabinet and Chairman of the National Security Advisory Committee, at time of summons. Summons to appear: 8 March 2011

Charges: five crimes against humanity allegedly committed during the 2007-2008 post-election violence in Kenya. Judges confirmed charges on 23 January 2012 but Prosecutor withdrew them on 11 March 2013. Case also involved charges against Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta and Mohammed Hussein Ali. Judges declined to confirm charges against Mohammed Hussein Ali on 23 January 2012. Proceedings against Mr Kenyatta were terminated on 13 March 2015.

Ngudjolo Chui, Mathieu
Leader of the Front des nationalistes et intégrationnistes (FNI), at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 6 July 2007 – unsealed on 7 February 2008

Charges: three crimes against humanity and seven war crimes allegedly committed on 24 February 2003 during an attack against the Bogoro village in the Ituri district of the DRC. Acquitted on 18 December 2012. Acquittal confirmed in appeals on 27 February 2015. Case also involved charges against Germain Katanga but the 2 cases were severed on 21 November 2012. Germain Katanga was found guilty on 7 March 2014.

Ntaganda, Bosco
Alleged Deputy Chief of Staff and commander of operations of the Forces Patriotiques pour la Libération du Congo (FPLC). Arrest warrants: 22 August 2006 – unsealed on 28 April 2008; second warrant: 13 July 2012

Charges: 13 counts of war crimes and 5 counts of crimes against humanity allegedly committed in 2002-2003 in the Ituri district of the DRC.

Odhiambo, Okot
Alleged Deputy Army Commander of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 8 July 2005 – Unsealed on 13 October 2005

Charges: two counts of crimes against humanity: murder and enslavement; and eight counts of war crimes: murder, intentionally directing an attack against a civilian population, pillaging, and forced enlistment of children, allegedly committed after 1 July 2002 in northern Uganda. Case against him terminated on 10 September 2015, following his passing. Case also involved Joseph Kony, Vincent Otti and Raska Lukwiya. Proceedings against Raska Lukwiya were also terminated due to his passing.

Ongwen, Dominic
Alleged Brigade Commander of the Sinia Brigade of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 8 July 2005 – Unsealed on 13 October 2005

Charges: 70 counts of crimes against humanity and war crimes allegedly committed after 1 July 2002 in northern Uganda

Otti, Vincent
Alleged Vice-Chairman and Second-in-Command of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), at time of warrant. Arrest warrant: 8 July 2005 – Unsealed on 13 October 2005

Charges: 11 counts of crimes against humanity: murder, sexual enslavement, inhumane acts of inflicting serious bodily injury and suffering; and 21 counts of war crimes: inducing rape, intentionally directing an attack against a civilian population, forced enlistment of children, cruel treatment of civilians, pillaging, and murder, allegedly committed after 1 July 2002 in northern Uganda. Case also involved Joseph Kony, Raska Lukwiya and Okot Odhiambo. Proceedings against Raska Lukwiya and Okot Odhiambo were terminated due to their passing.

 

Ruto, William Samoei
Kenyan Minister of Higher Education, Science and Technology (suspended), MP for Eldoret North (and during the post-election violence, MP for Eldoret North), at time of summons. Summons to appear: 8 March 2011

Charges: three crimes against humanity: murder, deportation or forcible transfer of population, and persecution, allegedly committed during the 2007-2008 post-election violence in Kenya. Case against William Samoei Ruto and Joshua Arap Sang was terminated on 5 April 2016. Case also involved Henry Kiprono Kosgey and Joshua Arap Sang. Judges declined to confirm the charges against Mr Kosgey on 23 January 2012.

Sang, Joshua Arap
Head of operations at Kass FMin Nairobi, Kenya (and during the post-election violence, a radio broadcaster), at time of summons. Summons to appear: 8 March 2011

Charges: three crimes against humanity: murder, deportation or forcible transfer of population, and persecution, allegedly committed during the 2007-2008 post-election violence in Kenya. Case also involved Henry Kiprono Kosgey and William Samoei Ruto. Judges declined to confirm the charges against Mr Kosgey on 23 January 2012. Case against Joshua Arap Sang and William Samoei Ruto was terminated on 5 April 2016.